Because most accounting textbooks use double declining balance as a depreciation method, we’ll use that for our sample asset. The double-declining balance depreciation (DDB) method, also known as the reducing balance method, is one of two common methods a business uses to account for the expense of a long-lived asset. Similarly, compared to the standard declining balance method, the double-declining method depreciates assets twice as quickly. The declining balance method is a type of accelerated depreciation used to write off depreciation costs earlier in an asset’s life and to minimize tax exposure.

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Recovery period, or the useful life of the asset, is the period over which you’re depreciating it, in years. With this method, the depreciation is expressed by the total number of units produced vs. the total number of units that the asset can produce. The total expense over the life of the asset will be the same under both approaches. In year 5, however, the balance would shift and the accelerated approach would have only $55,520 of depreciation, while the non-accelerated approach would have a higher number. Over 1.8 million professionals use CFI to learn accounting, financial analysis, modeling and more. Start with a free account to explore 20+ always-free courses and hundreds of finance templates and cheat sheets.

How Do You Calculate Depreciation Annually?

As the declining balance depreciation uses the net book value in the calculation, the company doesn’t need to determine the depreciable cost like other depreciation methods. In other words, unlike other depreciation methods, the salvage value is ignored completely when the company calculates the declining balance depreciation. For example, on Jan 01, the company ABC buys a machine that costs $20,000. The company ABC has the policy to depreciate the machine type of fixed asset using the declining balance depreciation with the rate of 40% per year. The machine is expected to have a $1,000 salvage value at the end of its useful life. In general, the company should allocate the cost of fixed assets based on the benefits that the company receives from them.

Double Declining Balance Method Formula (DDB)

Computer equipment for instance has better functionality in its early years. Computer equipment also becomes obsolete in a span of few years due to technological developments. Using reducing balance method to depreciate computer equipment would ensure that higher depreciation is charged in the earlier years of its operation. 150% declining balance depreciation is calculated in the same manner as is double-declining-balance depreciation, except that the rate is 150% of the straight-line rate. Depreciation is an accounting process by which a company allocates an asset’s cost throughout its useful life. Firms depreciate assets on their financial statements and for tax purposes in order to better match an asset’s productivity in use to its costs of operation over time.

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An asset costing $20,000 has estimated useful life of 5 years and salvage value of $4,500. Calculate the depreciation for the first year of its life using double declining balance method. A more common depreciation method is the straight-line method, where the depreciation expense to be recognized is spread evenly over the useful life of the underlying asset. This method is the simplest to calculate, and generally represents the actual usage of assets over time. It is also more likely to leave carrying values on the balance sheet that reflect the remaining market values of assets (though there is not necessarily a direct relationship between carrying value and market value).

The percentage used typically remains constant throughout the asset’s useful life. The key aspect is that the book value decreases yearly, so the actual depreciation expense decreases over time. As you can see from the above example, depreciation expense under reducing balance method progressively declines over the asset’s useful life. However, note that eventually, we must switch from using the double declining method of depreciation in order for the salvage value assumption to be met. Since we’re multiplying by a fixed rate, there will continuously be some residual value left over, irrespective of how much time passes.

In other words, the depreciation in the declining balance method will stop when the net book value of the fixed asset equals the salvage value. Hence, our calculation of the depreciation expense in Year 5 – the final year of our fixed asset’s useful life – differs from the prior periods. The depreciation expense recorded under the double declining method is calculated by multiplying the accelerated rate, 36.0% by the beginning PP&E balance in each period. While the straight-line depreciation method is straight-forward and most popular, there are instances in which it is not the most appropriate method. Assets are usually more productive when they are new, and their productivity declines gradually due to wear and tear and technological obsolescence. Thus, in the early years of their useful life, assets generate more revenues.

At the beginning of the second year, the fixture’s book value will be $80,000, which is the cost of $100,000 minus the accumulated depreciation of $20,000. When the $80,000 is multiplied by 20% the result is $16,000 of depreciation for Year 2. The articles and research support materials available on this site are educational and are not intended to be investment or tax advice. All such information is provided solely for convenience purposes only and all users thereof should be guided accordingly. 11 Financial may only transact business in those states in which it is registered, or qualifies for an exemption or exclusion from registration requirements. 11 Financial’s website is limited to the dissemination of general information pertaining to its advisory services, together with access to additional investment-related information, publications, and links.

With declining balance methods of depreciation, when the asset has a salvage value, the ending Net Book Value should be the salvage value. Under Straight Line Depreciation, we first subtracted the salvage value before figuring depreciation. With declining balance methods, we don’t subtract that from the calculation. What that means is we are only depreciating the asset to its salvage value. Here’s the depreciation schedule for calculating the double-declining depreciation expense and the asset’s net book value for each accounting period. In case of any confusion, you can refer to the step by step explanation of the process below.

  1. The “double” means 200% of the straight line rate of depreciation, while the “declining balance” refers to the asset’s book value or carrying value at the beginning of the accounting period.
  2. Companies can (and do) use different depreciation methods for each set of books.
  3. As years go by and you deduct less of the asset’s value, you’ll also be making less income from the asset—so the two balance out.
  4. With declining balance methods, we don’t subtract that from the calculation.
  5. There are also free online MACRS Tax Depreciation calculators you can use.

When choosing a MACRS depreciation convention, it’s a good idea to use the half-year option over the mid-quarter since the half-year convention helps you buy extra time and saves money. For instance, you could install a computer network in September and itemize 6-month’s worth of depreciation, resulting in more significant tax savings. Next year when you do your calculations, the book value of the ice cream truck will be $18,000. Don’t worry—these formulas are a lot easier to understand with a step-by-step example.

Declining balance depreciation is the type of accelerated method of depreciation of fixed assets that results in a bigger amount of depreciation expense in the early year of fixed asset usage. In this case, the company can calculate decline balance depreciation after it determines the yearly depreciation rate and the net book value bookkeeping st louis of the fixed asset. The declining balance method is one of the two accelerated depreciation methods and it uses a depreciation rate that is some multiple of the straight-line method rate. The double-declining balance (DDB) method is a type of declining balance method that instead uses double the normal depreciation rate.