what role does cognitive dissonance play in equity theory

P may do this by working longer hours (assuming that P is a salaried, rather than an hourly paid, employee), by putting forth more effort, and/or by doing work of higher quantity or quality, for example. By contrast, if P feels underpaid, he or she may lower his or her own inputs in an effort to match O’s outcome-input ratio. P may do this by reducing the amount of effort put forth, by working fewer hours (again, assuming that P is a salaried employee), and/or by doing work of lower quantity or quality. Adams used both observational and experimental data to support his equity theory.1 Using such evidence, he explored how the guilt and hostility that result from inequity can decrease motivation and productivity within the workplace, subsequently impacting quality of work. If you’re looking for more science-based ways to help others through CBT, this collection contains 17 validated positive CBT tools for practitioners.

Acting on the Object of Comparison by Behaviorally Altering or Cognitively Distorting the Other’s Outcomes or Inputs

  • In the coming years, we believe that it is inevitable that psychologists of differing disciplines will question the utility of offering wholly ‘distinct’ motivational accounts for each instantiation of this general inconsistency compensation phenomenon.
  • Participants in the high-dissonance condition spread apart the alternatives significantly more than the participants in the other two conditions.
  • Particularly, in line with the theory, the equal distribution of power correlated with a stronger feeling of happiness.
  • Employees with less experience, however, are likely to rely on their own personal knowledge and understanding when assessing what is fair.
  • The group can try to make them feel guilty for their religion of origin, race, country, or some aspect of their personal history.
  • The most important criterion of behavior control is the demand for dependency and obedience to the group, its ideology, and its leadership.

According to equity theory, feelings of equity or inequity are based on the specific referent comparisons made. Thus, it is possible for people to feel overpaid relative to some individuals, underpaid relative to others, and equitably paid relative to still another group. For example, a management professor https://ecosoberhouse.com/ may feel overpaid relative to philosophy professors and underpaid relative to law professors, but equitably paid relative to other management professors. Simply by switching one’s basis of comparison, it is possible for individuals who feel overpaid or underpaid to feel more equitably paid.

what role does cognitive dissonance play in equity theory

What is the difference between cognitive dissonance theory and balance theory?

As someone interested in the field of psychology, you may already be familiar with the concept of cognitive dissonance. This term is used to describe the state of discomfort that occurs when two or more modes of thought contradict each other.1 For example, if you care about the planet but still buy plastic water bottles, you’re likely to experience cognitive dissonance. Ethical dissonance is similar in the sense that it is also triggered by an inconsistency. The formula conveys that the greater the amount or importance of dissonant cognitions and the smaller the number or importance of consonant elements the greater the magnitude of dissonance one experiences.

  • Specified internal standards are salient for organisational leaders, who base their judgement about reward distribution on personal equity norms (Rus, van Knippenberg & Wisse, 2010).
  • Just as people perceiving that they are in inequitable relationships may change their own outcomes or inputs behaviorally or cognitively, they also may attempt to alter or cognitively distort the outcomes or inputs of others.
  • By exploring these different domains, scholars continue to uncover new insights into the complexities of human interactions and the pursuit of fairness.
  • In addition, some leaders keep believers so busy they have no time to think or check anything, let alone make outside relationships through which they might gather information about the world.

The Role of Equity Theory in the Workplace

The Positive Psychology Toolkit© is a groundbreaking practitioner resource containing over 500 science-based exercises, activities, interventions, questionnaires, and assessments created by experts using the latest positive psychology research. This can be a difficult and uncomfortable process and involves getting additional information. Cognitive dissonance leads to the motivation to reduce the dissonance (Festinger, 1957). The stronger the discrepancy between thoughts, the greater the motivation to reduce it (Festinger, 1957). If a voluntary experience that has cost a lot of effort turns out badly, the dissonance is reduced by redefining the experience as interesting.

Acquire new information that outweighs the dissonant beliefs.

Participants were also told that they would receive one of the products at the end of the experiment to compensate for their time and effort. Brehm (1956) was the first to investigate the relationship between dissonance and decision-making. If you took the job you would miss your loved ones; if you turned the job down, you would pine for the beautiful streams, mountains, and valleys. Being paid only $1 is not sufficient incentive for lying and so those who were paid $1 experienced dissonance. They could only overcome that dissonance by coming to believe that the tasks really were interesting and enjoyable.

The comparison process is not limited to tangible rewards like salary or recognition; it also extends to intangible aspects such as respect and appreciation. A partner feeling guilty about their own shortcomings might focus excessively on their partner’s flaws, shifting blame and reducing their own discomfort. Cognitive dissonance theory indicates that individuals distort information to align with their existing beliefs, affecting self-perception and perception of others (Cooper, 2007). To reduce dissonance, individuals might overemphasize their partner’s faults while minimizing their own, leading to an imbalanced and often unrealistic view of the relationship. When partners rationalize their questionable actions or attitudes, it creates unpredictability and insecurity.

  • It was originally not reserved for animal meat but could be used to describe any type of solid food (Singer, 1995).
  • Only scant research has investigated multiple dissonance reduction strategies simultaneously (McGrath, 2017).
  • Common methods to (re)achieve consistency between one’s attitudes and/or behavior include changing or justifying one or both of them, adding new parts to the cognition, or entirely distorting one’s perception and information about the world (Festinger, 1962).
  • Some studies also investigated moderators, such as income and product involvement (Gbadamosi, 2009), on consumer decision making.

Other groups use audible prayers, chanting, speaking in tongues, davening (rocking backward and forward) or meditation to induce altered states in which people are less capable of analytical thinking or evaluation. Critical skills can be over-ridden through repetition, fixation or constant mimicry, or through techniques that induce euphoria. Eyes-closed visualizations and “guided meditation” techniques can heighten suggestibility, making it easier to insert thoughts and beliefs into members. Deviant thoughts, feelings, and actions must be reported to leadership, otherwise, the member will be in trouble too. Many groups use a “buddy” or “twin” system to monitor and control, especially when out recruiting.

Organizations that prioritize equity and fairness in their policies and practices are more likely to have higher employee morale, leading to a more engaged and dedicated workforce. Furthermore, Equity Theory delves into the importance of the equity sensitivity of individuals. This sensitivity refers to how much people value a fair distribution of outcomes in their relationships. Some individuals are more equity-sensitive, meaning they are acutely aware of imbalances and strive to rectify them promptly. In contrast, others may be less sensitive to equity and may not be as bothered by perceived disparities.

what role does cognitive dissonance play in equity theory

Induce effort

Another limitation concerns the principles of the theory related to responses to inequity. It has been argued that the response to under-reward may be different to what is predicted by the theory, if the person chose to be under-rewarded (e.g. turning cognitive dissonance and addiction down a lucrative job in a pursuit of another career with a lower salary). In such situations, people may be more intrinsically motivated to improve the performance of the task, rather than decrease the input (Cropanzano & Folger, 1989).